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Most of us use the word ‘heat’ to mean something that feels warm, but science defines heat as the flow of energy from a warm object to a cooler object.
For example, an ice cube has heat energy and so does a glass of lemonade.These tiny particles are always in motion – either bumping into each other or vibrating back and forth.It is the motion of particles that creates a form of energy called heat (or thermal) energy that is present in all matter.The particles in solids are tightly packed and can only vibrate.The particles in liquids also vibrate but are able to move around by rolling over each other and sliding around.In gases, the particles move freely with rapid, random motion.
At higher temperatures, particles have more energy.
Some of this energy can be transmitted to other particles that are at a lower temperature.
If you put the ice in the lemonade, the lemonade (which is warmer) will transfer some of its heat energy to the ice. Eventually, the ice will melt and the lemonade and water from the ice will be the same temperature.
This is known as reaching a state of thermal equilibrium. It is everything in the universe – anything that has both mass and volume and takes up space is matter.
Matter exists in different physical forms – solids, liquids and gases.
All matter is made of tiny particles called atoms, molecules and ions.