Often, the shop would incorporate Latin sayings in its mosaics, using Roman capitals surrounded by geometric designs.
English artisans also tried their hand at Florentine pietra dura, led by the sixth duke of Devonshire.
Other popular motifs included miniature versions of ancient architectural mosaics like Pliny’s doves in Capitoline, ancient wall paintings like those found at Herculean, King Charles spaniels, and mythological and religious figures.
Unlike Roman micro mosaics, pietra dura—literally “hard stone,” it is also called “pietre dure” or Florentine intarsia—is not made of square or rectilinear tessarae but from thin bits of stone carved into specific shapes fitted together like a jigsaw puzzle.
They started look for ways to adapt mosaic techniques for copying paintings, which required developing thousands of hues of tesserae, also known as “smalti,” in a non-reflective material to give the appearance of a painted surface.